Bonanza Creek LTER
BNZ LTER Web Site Map

The Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research
We are located in the boreal forest of interior Alaska, USA and our facilities are centered in the city of Fairbanks. Research at our LTER site focuses on improving our understanding of the long-term consequences of changing climate and disturbance regimes in the Alaskan boreal forest. Our overall objective is to document the major controls over forest dynamics, biogeochemistry, and disturbance and their interactions in the face of a changing climate. The site was established in Fairbanks, Alaska in 1987 as part of the National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program.

BNZ Area Web Cam
Click here to see a recent image from the web camera in the Caribou Poker Creek Research Watershed.  It is located at the CRREL research site.

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HOT...NEW!!! Bonanza Creek Publications Bibliography Search Page

Journal Articles:

Bestelmeyer, S.V., M.M. Elser, K.V. Spellman, E.B. Sparrow, S.S. Haan-Amato, A. Keener. 2015 Collaboration, interdisciplinary thinking, and communication: applying shifting paradigms in ecology for K-12 education. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13(1): 37-43. DOI: 10.1890/140130

Brown, C., K.A. Seaton, T.J. Brinkman, E.S. Euskirchen, and K. Kielland. 2015 Applications of resilience theory in management of a moose-hunter system in Alaska. Ecology & Society 20(1):16. DOI: 10.5751/ES-07202-200116.

Edwards, Mary, Leanne Franklin-Smith, Charlotte Clarke, Joanna Baker, Sian Hill and Katherine Gallagher. 2015 The role of fire in the mid-Holocene arrival and expansion of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. Ex S. Watson) in the Yukon Territory, Canada. The Holocene 25: 64–78.

Ji, L., B. K. Wylie, D. R. N. Brown, B. Peterson, H. D. Alexander, M. C. Mack, J. Rover, M. P. Waldrop, J. W. McFarland, X. Chen, & N. J. Pastick. 2015 Spatially explicit estimation of aboveground boreal forest biomass in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 36:4, 939-953. DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2015.1004764

Jones, C. E., K. Kielland, L. Hinzman, and W.S. Schneider. 2015 Integrating Local Knowledge and Science: Economic Consequences of Driftwood Harvest in a Changing Climate. Ecology & Society 20(1): 25. DOI: 10.5751/ES-07235-200125

Jones, C.E, K. Kielland, and L. Hinzman. 2015 Modeling groundwater upwelling as a control on river ice thickness. Hydrological Research 46:566-577. DOI: 10.2166/nh.2015.026

Lord, R. and K. Kielland. 2015 Effects of variable fire severity on forage production and foraging behavior of moose in winter. Alces 51: 23-34.

Paragi, T.F., C.T. Seaton, K.A. Kellie, R.D. Boertje, K. Kielland, D.D. Young, Jr., M.A. Keech, and S.D. DuBois. 2015 Browse removal, plant condition, and moose twinning rates before and after short-term changes in moose densities. Alces 51: 1-21

Spellman, K.V., L.C. Schneller, C.P.H. Mulder and M.L. Carlson. 2015 Effects of non-native Melilotus albus on pollination and reproduction in two boreal shrubs. Oecologia. DOI 10.1007/s00442-015-3364-9

Turetsky, M. R., B. Benscoter, S. Page, G. Rein, G. R. van der Werf, and A. Watts. 2015 Global vulnerability of peatlands to fire and carbon loss. Nature Geoscience 8: 11-14. DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2325.

Walker X.J., Mack M.C., Johnstone J.F.. 2015 Stable carbon isotope analysis reveals widespread drought stress in boreal black spruce forests. Global Change Biology, DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12893

Worker, S.B., K. Kielland, P.S. Barboza. 2015 Effects of geophagy on food intake, body mass, and nutrient dynamics of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 93:323-329. DOI:10.1139/cjz-2014-0237

Barrett, S., T.M. Lenton, A. Milner, A. Tavoni, S. Carpenter, J.M. Anderies, F.S. Chapin, III, A.-S. Crepin, G. Daily, P. Ehrlich, C. Folke, V. Galaz, T. Hughes, N. Kautsky, E. Lambin, R. Naylor, K. Nyborg, S. Polasky, M. Scheffer, J. Wilen, A. Xepapadeas, and A. de Zeeuw. 2014 Climate engineering reconsidered. Nature Climate Change 4:527-529. DOI:10.1038/nclimate2278

Bryant, J.P., K. Joly. D. DeAngelis, F.S. Chapin, III, and K. Kielland. 2014 Can antibrowsing defense regulate the spread of woody vegetation in arctic tundra? Ecography 37:204-211 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2013.00436.x

Euskirchen, E.S., C. Edgar, M.R. Turetsky, M.P. Waldrop, and J.W. Harden. 2014 Differential response of carbon fluxes to climate in three peatland ecosystems that vary in the presence and stability of permafrost. Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences 119: 1576-1595. doi:10.1002/2014JG002683.

Euskirchen, E.S., T.B Carman, A.D. McGuire. 2014 Changes in the structure and function of northern Alaskan ecosystems when considering variable leaf-out times across groupings of species in a dynamic vegetation model. Global Change Biology 20, 963-978. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12392

Ewing, S.A., J.B. Paces, J.A. O'Donnell, M.T. Jorgenson, M.Z. Kanevskiy, G.R. Aiken, Y. Shur, J.W. Harden, and R. Striegl. 2014 Uranium isotopes in loess permafrost: modeling the age of ancient ice. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2014.11.008

Fan, Z., J.C. Neff, M.P. Waldrop, A.P. Ballantyne, and M.R. Turetsky. 2014 Transport of oxygen in soil pore-water systems: Implications for modeling emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from peatlands. Biogeochemistry 121: 455-470. doi:10.1007/s10533-014-0012-0.

Feierabend, D. and K. Kielland. 2014 Movements, activity patterns, and habitat use of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) in interior Alaska. Journal of Mammalogy 95:525-533. DOI: 10.1644/13-MAMM-A-199

Feierabend, D., K. Kielland. 2014 Multiple Crossings of a Large Glacial River by Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis). Canadian Field-Naturalist 128(1): 80-83.

Fernandez-Martinez, M., S. Vicca, I. A. Janssens, J. Sardans, S. Luyssaert, M. Campioli, F.S. Chapin III, P. Ciais, Y. Malhi, M. Obersteiner, D. Papale, S.L. Piao, M. Reichstein, F. Roda, J. Penuelas. 2014 Nutrient availability as the key regulator of global forest carbon balance. Nature Climate Change 4:471-476; DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2177.

Grunzweig, J.M., D. W. Valentine, and F. S. Chapin III. 2014 Successional Changes in Carbon Stocks After Logging and Deforestation for Agriculture in Interior Alaska: Implications for Boreal Climate Feedbacks. Ecosystems. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-014-9817-x

Gustine D.D., T.J. Brinkman, M.A. Lindgren, J.I. Schmidt, T.S. Rupp, and L.G. Adams. 2014 Climate-Driven Effects of Fire on Winter Habitat for Caribou in the Alaskan- Yukon Arctic. PLoS ONE 9(7): e100588. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0100588

Hayes, D.J., D.W. Kicklighter, A.D. McGuire, M. Chen, Q. Zhuang, F. Yuan, J.M. Melillo, and S.D. Wullschleger. 2014 The impacts of recent permafrost thaw on land-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange. Environmental Research Letters 9. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/4/045005.

He, Y., M.C. Jones, Q. Zhuang, C. Bochicchio, B.S. Felzer, E. Mason, Z. Yu, Z. 2014 Evaluating CO2 and CH4 dynamics of Alaskan ecosystems during the Holocene Thermal Maximum. Quaternary Science Review 86: 63-77. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.12.019

He, Y., Q. Zhuang, J.W. Harden, A.D. McGuire, Z. Fan, Y. Liu, and K. Wickland. 2014 The implications of microbial and substrate limitation for the fates of carbon in different organic soil horizon types of boreal forest ecosystems: A mechanistically based model analysis. Biogeosciences 11:4477-4491. doi:10.5194/bg-11-4477-2014.

Hobbs, R.J., E.S. Higgs, C.M. Hall, P. Bridgewater, F.S. Chapin III, E.C. Ellis, J.J. Ewel, L.M. Hallett, J.A. Harris, K.B. Hulvey, S.T. Jackson, P.L. Kennedy, C. Kueffer, L. Lach, T.C. Lantz, A.E. Lugo, J. Mascaro, S.D. Murphy, C.R. Nelson, M.P. Perring, D.M. Richardson, T.R. Seastedt, R.J. Standish, B.M. Starzomski, K.N. Suding, P.M. Tognetti, L. Yakob, and L. Yung. 2014 Managing the whole landscape: Historical, hybrid, and novel ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 12(10):557-564, doi:10.1890/130300.

Hugelius, G., J. Strauss, S. Zubrzycki, J.W. Harden, E.A.G. Schuur, C.-L. Ping, L. Schirrmeister, G. Grosse, G.J. Michaelson, C.D. Koven, J.A. O'Donnell, B. Elberling, U. Mishra, P. Camill, Z. Yu, J. Palmtag, and P. Kuhry. 2014 Estimated stocks of circumpolar permafrost carbon with quantified uncertainty ranges and identified data gaps. Biogeosciences 11: 6573-6593.

Jafarov, E.E., D.J. Nicolsky, V.E. Romanovsky, J.E. Walsh, S.K. Panda, and M.C. Serreze. 2014 The effect of snow: How to better model ground surface temperatures. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 102: 63-77.

Johnston, C.E. , S.A. Ewing, J.W. Harden, R.K. Varner, K.P. Wickland, J. Koch, C.C. Fuller, K.L. Manies, and M.T. Jorgenson. 2014 Effect of permafrost thaw on CO2 and CH4 exchange in a western Alaska peatland chronosequence. Environmental Research Letters 9: 085004. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/8/085004.

Jorgensen, D., C. Nilsson, A.R. Hof, E.M. Hasselquist, S. Baker, F.S. Chapin III, K Eckerberg, J. Hjalten, L. Polvi, and L.A. Meyerson. 2014 Policy language in restoration ecology. Restoration Ecology 22(1): doi: 10.1111/rec.12069.

Kanevskiy, M., T. Jorgenson, Y. Shur, J.A. O'Donnell, J.W. Harden, Q. Zhuang, and D. Fortier. 2014 Cryostratigraphy and Permafrost Evolution in the Lacustrine Lowlands of West-Central Alaska. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 25: 14-34. DOI: 10.1002/ppp.1800.

Kielland, K. 2014 Natural history of northern plants and animals. Review of R.M.M. Crawford Tundra-taiga biology: human, plant, and animal survival in the Arctic. Oxford University Press. Ecology 95:2364-2365. DOI:10.1890/BR14-35.1

Klapstein, S.J., M.R. Turetsky, A.D. McGuire, J.W. Harden, C.I. Czimczik, X. Xu, J.P. Chanton, and J.M. Waddington. 2014 Controls on methane released through ebullition in peatlands affected by permafrost degradation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 119: 418-431. DOI: 10.1002/2013JG002441

Krebs, C.J., J. Bryant, K. Kielland, M. O'Donoghue, F. Doyle, S. Carriere, D. DiFolco, N. Berg, R. Boonstra, S. Boutin, A. J. Kenney, D.G. Reid, K. Bodony, J. Putera, H. K. Timm, T. Burke, J.A.K. Meier, and H. Golden. 2014 What factors determine cyclic amplitude in the snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) cycle? Can. J. Zool. 92(12): 1039-1048. DOI: 10.1139/cjz-2014-0159

Krupa, M.B., F.S. Chapin, and A.L. Lovecraft. 2014 Robustness or Resilience? Managing the intersection of ecology and engineering in an urban Alaskan fishery. Ecology and Society 19(2): 17. DOI: 10.5751/ES-06274-190217.

Mace, G., B. Reyers; R. Alkemade, R, Biggs, F. S. Chapin III, S. E. Cornell, S. Diaz, S. Jennings, P. Leadley, P.J. Mumby, A. Purvis, R.J Scholes, A.W.R. Seddon, M. Solan, W. Steffen, G. Woodward. 2014 Approaches to defining a planetary boundary for biodiversity. Global Environmental Change 28:289-297. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.07.009

Mayor, J.R., S.J. Wright, E.A.G. Schuur, M.E. Brooks, and B.L. Turner. 2014 Stable nitrogen isotope patterns of trees and soils altered by long-term nitrogen and phosphorus additions to a lowland tropical rainforest. Biogeochemistry 119:293-306.

Milla, R., J. Morente-Lopez, J. M. Alonso-Rodrigo, N. Martin-Robles, and F. S. Chapin III. 2014 Shifts and disruptions in resource-use trait syndromes during the evolution of herbaceous crops. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B 281. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2014.1429

Natali, S.M., E.A.G. Schuur, E. Webb, C.E. Hicks Pries, and K.G. Crummer. 2014 Permafrost degradation stimulates carbon loss from experimentally warmed tundra. Ecology 95(3):602–608. DOI: 10.1890/13-0602.1

Niu, S., Y. Luo, M.C. Dietze, T. Keenan, Z. Shi, J. Li, and F.S. Chapin, III. 2014 The role of data assimilation in predictive ecology. Ecosphere 5(5):65. DOI: 10.1890/ES13-00273.1.

Roy, B.A., and C.P.H. Mulder. 2014 Pathogens, herbivores, and phenotypic plasticity of boreal Vaccinium vitis-idaea experiencing climate change. Ecosphere 5: 30. DOI: 10.1890/ES13-00271.1

Schaefer, K., H. Lantuit, V. E. Romanovsky, E. A. E. Schuur, R. Witt. 2014 The impact of the permafrost carbon feedback on global climate. Environmental Research Letters, 9: 085003 (9 pp). DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/9/8/085003

Schmidt, J.I., F. S. Chapin. 2014 Relationship of Community Characteristics to Harvest Reporting: Comparative Study of Household Surveys and Harvest Tickets in Alaska, Human Dimensions of Wildlife: An International Journal, 19:4, 334-346, DOI: 10.1080/10871209.2014.917219

Schädel, C., E.A.G. Schuur, R. Bracho, B. Elberling, C. Knoblauch, H. Lee, Y. Luo, G. Shaver, and M. Turetsky. 2014 Circumpolar assessment of permafrost C quality and its vulnerability over time using long-term incubation data. Global Change Biology, Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 641-652, February 2014 doi: 10.1111/gcb.12417.

Spellman, K.V., C.P.H. Mulder, and T.N. Hollingsworth. 2014 Susceptibility of burned black spruce (Picea mariana) forests to non-native plant invasions in interior Alaska. Biological Invasions, 16(9): pp 1879-1895. DOI 10.1007/s10530-013-0633-6

Tallis, H., and J. Lubchenco. 2014 A call for inclusive conservation. Nature 515: 27-28. DOI: 10.1038/515027a

Tas N., E. Prestat, J.W. McFarland, K.P. Wickland, R. Knight, A.A. Berhe, T. Jorgenson, M.P. Waldrop, and J.K. Jansson. 2014 Impact of fire on active layer and permafrost microbial communities and metagenomes in an upland Alaskan boreal forest. International Journal of Microbial Ecology 8: 1904-1919. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.36.

Turetsky, M. R., A. Kotowska, J. Bubier, N. B. Dise, P. Crill, E. R. C. Hornibrook, K. Minkkinen, T. R. Moore, I. H. Myers-Smith, H. Nykanen, D. Olefeldt, J. Rinne, S. Saarnio, N. Shurpali, E. S. Tuittila, J. M. Waddington, J. R. White, K. P. Wickland, and M. Wilmking. 2014 A synthesis of methane emissions from 71 northern, temperate, and subtropical wetlands. Global Change Biology 20, 2183-2197. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12580

Ueyama, M., K. Ichii, H. Iwata, E.S. Euskirchen, D. Zona, A.V. Rocha, Y. Harazono, C. Iwama, T. Nakai, and W.C. Oechel. 2014 Change in surface energy balance in Alaska due to fire and spring warming, based on upscaling eddy covariance measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 119: 1947-1969. DOI: 10.1002/2014JG002717.

Verbyla, D.. 2014 Comparison of eMODIS and MOD/MYD13A2 NDVI products during 2012-2014 spring green-up periods in Alaska and northwest Canada. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 36 (2015) 83-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.jag.2014.11.009

Walker X., Johnstone J.F.. 2014 Widespread negative correlations between black spruce growth and temperature across topographic moisture gradients in the boreal forest. Environmental Research Letters, 9, 064016; doi:10.1088/1748-9326/9/6/064016.

Walter Anthony, K.M., S.A. Zimov, G. Grosse, M.C. Jones, P.M. Anthony, F.S. Chapin III, J.C. Finlay, M.C. Mack, S. Davydov, P. Frenzel, and S. Frolking. 2014 A shift of thermokarst lakes from carbon sources to sinks during the Holocene epoch. Nature 511:452-456. DOI: 10.1038/nature13560.

Wullschleger, S. D., H.E. Epstein, E.O. Box, E.S. Euskirchen, S. Goswami, C.M. Iversen, J. Kattge, R.J. Norby, P.M. van Bodegom, and X. Xu. 2014 Plant functional types in Earth system models: past experiences and future directions for application of dynamic vegetation models in high-latitude ecosystems. Annals of Botany 114: 1-16. DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcu077.


Book Chapters:

Bierbaum, R., J.B. Smith, A. Lee, M. Blair, L. Carter, F.S. Chapin, III, P. Fleming, S. Ruffo, S. McNeeley, M. Stults, L. Verduzco, and E. Seyller. 2014. Ch. 28: Adaptation. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment, J. M. Melillo, Terese (T.C.) Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, 670-706. doi:10.7930/J07H1GGT.

Chapin, F. S., III, and V.T. Eviner. 2014. Biogeochemical interactions governing terrestrial net primary production. Pages 189-216 In D. Karl and W.H. Schlesinger (Ed. Treatise on Geochemistry volume 10, Executive editors H.D. Holland and K.K. Turekian. 2nd edition. Elsevier, Amsterdam

F.S. Chapin, III, Trainor, S.F., Cochran, P., Huntington, H., Markon, C., McCammon, M., McGuire, A.D, and Serreze, M. 2014. Chapter 22: Alaska. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. J.M. Melillo, T.C. Richmond, and G.W. Yohe (editors), U.S. Global Change Research Program, pp. 514-536. Doi:10.7930/J00Z7150.

Ruhl, J. B. and F.S. Chapin III. 2014. Ecosystem Services, Ecosystem Resilience, and Resilience of Ecosystem Management Policy (October 24, 2014). In Social-Ecological Resilience and Law 204. (Columbia University Press, Ahjond S. Garmestani and Craig R. Allen eds, 2014); Vanderbilt Public Law Research Paper No. 14-38. Available at SSRN:

Conference Proceedings:

Gogineni, P., V. E. Romanovsky, J. Cherry, C. Duguay, S. Goetz, M. T. Jorgenson, and M. Moghaddam. 2014. Opportunities to Use Remote Sensing in Understanding Permafrost and Related Ecological Characteristics: Report of a Workshop. National Research Council, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press


Manies, K.L., J.W. Harden, and T.N. Hollingsworth. 2014. Soils, Vegetation, and Woody Debris Data from the 2001 Survey Line Fire and a Comparable Unburned Site, Tanana Flats Region, Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2014-1049. 36 p., DOI: 10.3133/ofr20141049.

Noetzli, J. H. H. Christiansen, M. Gugliemin, V. E. Romanovsky, N. I. Shiklomanov, S. L. Smith, and L. Zhao. 2014. [Global Climate] Cryosphere, Permafrost thermal state [in "State of the Climate in 2013"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95 (7), S15-S17.

Romanovsky, V. E., A. L. Kholodov, S. L. Smith, H. H. Christiansen, N. I. Shiklomanov, D. S. Drozdov, G. V. Malkova, N. G. Oberman, and S. S. Marchenko. 2014. [The Arctic] Terrestrial Permafrost [in "State of the Climate in 2013"]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 95 (7), S139-S141

Thesis and Dissertations:

Bonanza Creek Research News and Highlights ARCHIVE

Nov 16, 2015 Opportunity
Contact: Annie Duffy
Title: "Arctic Perspectives," a new March 2016 art/sci collaborative exhibit opportunity is calling for submissions.

Nov 16, 2015
Get more information here.
    Anyone with interest in Arctic science is welcome to apply - it's not limited to just Alaskan artists or scientists. This a joint venture between the UAF Art Department and several UAF science groups intended to bring the arts into the upcoming Arctic Science Summit Week. (March 2016) It’s a great opportunity for both local artists and scientists. The application due date is 11/30/15. (Simple app - just a statement, CV, and 4 images.) Can you please share it widely with your various networks? Any questions about arts/humanities submissions, possible collaboration ideas, etc., can be sent to Annie Duffy ( Science-related questions can be sent to Olivia Lee ( The prospectus can be found here: Prospectus

Oct 23, 2015 Lecture
Presenter: Knut Kielland
Title: IAB Life Science Hour Seminar Series - Bidirectional demographic effects of plant-herbivore-predator interactions (with an addendum to the Bible)

Oct 23, 2015 ; 3:00PM ; Murie Life Science Bldg, Murie Auditorium
Get more information here.
    The population dynamics of plants and animals are influenced to a large extent by trophic interactions. The strength of these interactions may not only cascade across trophic levels by way of changing population abundance, but also change population structure, the nature of which control patterns of survival, reproduction, and resilience. I will present examples from the boreal forest of a range of these phenomena and discuss a handful of the most pertinent and delightful ideas that have been put forth to explain the mechanisms and demographic consequences of these interactions. Yep, that’s what this talk will be about.

Oct 1, 2015 News
Presenter: Jamie Hollingsworth
Title: Long-term Research in Interior Alaska Tracks Consequences of our Changing Climate

Oct 1, 2015
Get more information here.
    Jamie Hollingsworth writes an article in the recent issue of The Western Forester (

Sep 2, 2015 News
Title: Alix Conway wins a prize for her poster at the 2015 LTER All Scientists Meeting!

Sep 2, 2015 ; Estes Park, CO
Get more information here.
    "A three-pronged approach to understanding how fire and mammalian herbivory interact to influence post-fire forest growth and composition in interior Alaska"

    Presenter/Primary Author: Alexandra Conway
    Co-Authors: Jill Johnstone

Bonanza Creek Primary Research Sites

goldarrow Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (BCEF), located approximately 20 km south of Fairbanks at 64.8 N, 148.0 W.

goldarrow Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW), located at 65.16 N, 147.5 W, approximately 45 km north of Fairbanks.

weather Data Policies | Webmaster Click for Fairbanks, Alaska Forecast

The Bonanza Creek LTER, including this website, is supported by the National Science Foundation through awards DEB-1026415, DEB-0620579, DEB-0423442, DEB-0080609, DEB-9810217, DEB-9211769, DEB-8702629 and by the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station through agreement number RJVA-PNW-01-JV-11261952-231. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the supporting agencies or the program as a whole.

© Bonanza Creek LTER, 2011.
Last modified 26-Nov-15
UAF is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer and educational institution.
This site is a member of the LTER Network.