Bonanza Creek LTER
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The Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research
We are located in the boreal forest of interior Alaska, USA and our facilities are centered in the city of Fairbanks. Research at our LTER site focuses on improving our understanding of the long-term consequences of changing climate and disturbance regimes in the Alaskan boreal forest. Our overall objective is to document the major controls over forest dynamics, biogeochemistry, and disturbance and their interactions in the face of a changing climate. The site was established in Fairbanks, Alaska in 1987 as part of the National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program.

BNZ Area Web Cam
Click here to see a recent image from the web camera in the Caribou Poker Creek Research Watershed.  It is located at the CRREL research site.

Bonanza Creek LTER on FACEBOOK

HOT...NEW!!! Bonanza Creek Publications Bibliography Search Page

Journal Articles:

Bestelmeyer, S.V., M.M. Elser, K.V. Spellman, E.B. Sparrow, S.S. Haan-Amato, A. Keener. 2015 Collaboration, interdisciplinary thinking, and communication: applying shifting paradigms in ecology for K-12 education. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13(1): 37-43. DOI: 10.1890/140130

Biskaborn, B.K., J.P. Lanckman, H. Lantuit, K. Elger, D.A. Streletskiy, W.L.C. Cable, V.E. Romanovsky. 2015 Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost database: Metadata statistics and prospective analysis on future permafrost temperature and active layer depth monitoring site distribution. Earth System Science Data 7(2). pp. 245-259. doi: 10.5194/essd-7-245-2015

Brown, C., K.A. Seaton, T. Brinkman, E.S. Euskirchen, K. Kielland. 2015 Applications of resilience theory in management of a moose-hunter system in Alaska. Ecology and Society 20(1). 9 p. doi: 10.5751/ES-07202-200116

Brown, C.D., J. Liu, G. Yan, J.F. Johnstone. 2015 Disentangling legacy effects from environmental filters of postfire assembly of boreal tree assemblages. Ecology 96(11). pp. 3023-3032. doi: 10.1890/14-2302.1

Brown, C.L., K.A. Seaton, T. Brinkman, E.S. Euskirchen, K. Kielland. 2015 Applications of resilience theory in management of a moose-hunter system in Alaska. Ecology & Society 20(1). 16 p. doi: 10.5751/ES-07202-200116

Brown, D.R.N., M.T. Jorgenson, T.A. Douglas, V.E. Romanovsky, K. Kielland, C. Hiemstra, E.S. Euskirchen, R.W. Ruess. 2015 Interactive effects of wildfire and climate on permafrost degradation in Alaskan lowland forests. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences 120. pp. 1619-1637. doi: 10.1002/2015JG003033

Brown, D.R.N., M.T. Jorgenson, T.A. Douglas, V.E. Romanovsky, K. Kielland, C. Hiemstra, E.S. Euskirchen, R.W. Ruess. 2015 Interactions of fire and climate exacerbate permafrost degradation in Alaskan lowland forests. Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences 120(8). pp. 1619-1637. doi: 10.1002/2015JG003033

Calef, M.P., A. Varvak, A.D. McGuire, F.S. Chapin, III, K.B. Reinhold. 2015 Recent changes in annual area burned in interior Alaska: The impact of fire management. Earth Interactions 19(5). 17 p. doi: 10.1175/EI-D-14-0025.1

Campioli, M., S. Vicca, S. Luyssaert, J. Bilcke, E. Ceschia, F.S. Chapin, III, P. Ciais, M. Fernández-Martínez, Y. Malhi, M. Obersteiner, D. Olefeldt, D. Papale, S. Piao, J. Penuelas, P.F. Sullivan, X. Wang, T. Zenone, I.A. Janssens. 2015 Biomass production efficiency controlled by management in temperate and boreal ecosystems. Nature Geoscience 8. pp. 843-846. doi: 10.1038/NGEO2553

Chapin, F.S., III, C.N. Knapp. 2015 Sense of place: A process for identifying and negotiating potentially contested visions of sustainability. Environmental Science and Policy 53. pp. 38-46. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2015.04.012

Chapin, F.S., III, M. Sommerkorn, M.D. Robards, K. Hiller-Pegram. 2015 Ecosystem stewardship: A resilience framework for arctic conservation. Global Environmental Change 34. pp. 207-217. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.07.003

Churchill, A.C., M.R. Turetsky, A.D. McGuire, T.N. Hollingsworth. 2015 Response of plant community structure and primary productivity to experimental drought and flooding in an Alaskan fen. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 45. pp. 185-193. doi: 10.1139/cjfr-2014-0100

Dennis, R.D., P. Doak, D. Wagner. 2015 Aspen leaf miner (Phyllocnistis populiella) oviposition site choice mediated by aspen (Populus tremuloides) extrafloral nectaries. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 9. pp. 405-413. doi: 10.1007/s11829-015-9380-1

Doak, P., D. Wagner. 2015 The role of interference competition in a sustained population outbreak of the aspen leaf miner in Alaska. Basic and Applied Ecology 16. pp. 434-442. doi: 10.1016/j.baae.2015.04.001

Edwards, M., L. Franklin-Smith, C. Clarke, J. Baker, S. Hill, K. Gallagher. 2015 The role of fire in the mid-Holocene arrival and expansion of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. Ex S. Watson) in Yukon, Canada. The Holocene 25. pp. 64-78. doi: 10.1177/0959683614556389

Fernandez-Martinez, M., S. Vicca, I.A. Janssens, J. Sardans, S. Luyssaert, M. Campioli, F.S. Chapin, III, P. Ciais, Y. Malhi, M. Obersteiner, D. Papale, S. Piao, M. Reichstein, F. Roda, J. Penuelas. 2015 Reply to 'Uncertain effects of nutrient availability on global forest carbon balance' and 'Data quality and the role of nutrients in forest carbon-use efficiency'. Nature Climate Change 5. pp. 960-961. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2794

Hewitt, R., A.P. Bennett, A.. Breen, T.N. Hollingsworth, D.L. Taylor, F.S. Chapin, III, T.S. Rupp. 2015 Getting to the root of the matter: landscape implications of plant-fungal interactions for tree migration in Alaska. Landscape Ecology -9999. 18 p. doi: 10.1007/s10980-015-0306-1

Hicks-Pries, C.E., E.A.G. Schuur, S.M.N. Natali, K.G. Crummer. 2015 Old soil carbon losses increase with ecosystem respiration in experimentally thawed tundra. Nature Climate Change. Published Online 26 October 2015. 7 p. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2830

Hultman, J., M.P. Waldrop, R. Mackelprang, M.M. David, J.W. McFarland, S.J. Blazewicz, J.W. Harden, M.R. Turetsky, A.D. McGuire, M.B. Shah, N.C. VerBerkmoes, L.H. Lee, K. Mavrommatis, J.K. Jansson. 2015 Multi-omics of permafrost, active layer and thermokarst bog soil microbiomes. Nature 521(7551). pp. 208-212. doi: 10.1038/nature14238

Jansson, R., C. Nilsson, E. Keskitalo, T. Vlassova, M. Sutinen, J. Moen, F.S. Chapin, III, K. Brathen, M. Cabeza, T.V. Callaghan, B. Van Oort, H. Dannevig, I.A. Bay-larsen, R.A. Ims, P. Aspholm. 2015 Future changes in the supply of goods and services from natural ecosystems: prospects for the European north. Ecology & Society 20(3). 11 p. doi: 10.5751/ES-07607-200332

Ji, L., B. K. Wylie, D. R. N. Brown, B. Peterson, H. D. Alexander, M. C. Mack, J. Rover, M. P. Waldrop, J. W. McFarland, X. Chen, & N. J. Pastick. 2015 Spatially explicit estimation of aboveground boreal forest biomass in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 36:4, 939-953. DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2015.1004764

Jones, C.E., K. Kielland, L.D. Hinzman. 2015 Modeling groundwater upwelling as a control on river ice thickness. Hydrological Research 46(4). pp. 566-577. doi: 10.2166/nh.2015.026

Jones, C.E., K. Kielland, L.D. Hinzman, W.S. Schneider. 2015 Integrating Local Knowledge and Science: Economic Consequences of Driftwood Harvest in a Changing Climate. Ecology & Society 20(1). 25 p. doi: 10.5751/ES-07235-200125

Juday, G.P., C. Alix, T.A. Grant, III. 2015 Spatial coherence and change of opposite white spruce temperature sensitivities on floodplains in Alaska confirms early-stage boreal biome shift. Forest Ecology and Management 350. pp. 46-61. doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2015.04.016

Kelly, R., H. Genet, A.D. McGuire, F.S. Hu. 2015 Palaeodata-informed modelling of large carbon losses from recent burning of boreal forests. doi: 10.1038/nclimate2832

King, A.W., R.J. Andres, K. Davis, M. Hafer, D.J. Hayes, D.N. Huntzinger, B. deJong, W. Kurz, A.D. McGuire, R. Vargas, Y. Wei, T.O. West, C.W. Woodall. 2015 North America’s net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990-2009. Biogeosciences 12. pp. 399-414. doi: 10.5194/bg-12-399-2015

Koven, C.D., E.A.G. Schuur, C. Schadel, T.J. Bohn, E. Burke, G. Chen, X. Chen, P. Ciais, G. Grosse, J.W. Harden, D.J. Hayes, G. Hugelius, E.E. Jafarov, G. Krinner, P. Kuhry, D.M. Lawrence, A. MacDougall, S. Marchenko, A.D. McGuire, S.M.N. Natali, D.J. Nicolsky, D. Olefeldt, S. Peng, V.E. Romanovsky, K. Schaefer, J. Strauss, C.C. Treat, M.R. Turetsky. 2015 A simplified, data-constrained approach to estimate the permafrost carbon-climate feedback. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 373(2054). 23 p. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2014.0423

Lara, M.J., A.D. McGuire, E.S. Euskirchen, C.E. Tweedie, K.M. Hinkel, A.N. Skurikhin, V.E. Romanovsky, G. Grosse, W.R. Bolton, H. Genet. 2015 Polygonal tundra geomorphological change in response to warming alters future CO2 and CH4 flux on the Barrow Peninsula. Global Change Biology 21. pp. 1634-1651. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12757

Lara, M.J., H. Genet, A.D. McGuire, E.S. Euskirchen, Y. Zhang, D.R.N. Brown, M.T. Jorgenson, V.E. Romanovsky, A. Breen, W.R. Bolton. 2015 Thermokarst rates intensify due to climate change and forest fragmentation in an Alaskan boreal forest lowland. doi: 10.1111/gcb.13124

Liang, J., M. Zhou, P.C. Tobin, A.D. McGuire, P. Reich. 2015 Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche-efficiency. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(18). pp. 5738-5743. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1409853112

Lord, R. and K. Kielland. 2015 Effects of variable fire severity on forage production and foraging behavior of moose in winter. Alces 51: 23-34.

Melvin, A.M., M.C. Mack, J.F. Johnstone, A.D. McGuire, H.. Genet, E.A.G. Schuur. 2015 Differences in Ecosystem Carbon Distribution and Nutrient Cycling Linked to Forest Tree Species Composition in a Mid-Successional Boreal Forest. doi: 10.1007/s10021-015-9912-7

Newman, J.R., D. Wagner, P. Doak. 2015 Impact of extrafloral nectar availability and plant genotype on ant visitation to quaking aspen. doi: 10.4039/tce.2015.38

Paragi, T.F., C.T. Seaton, K.A. Kellie, R.D. Boertje, K. Kielland, D.D. Young, Jr., M.A. Keech, and S.D. DuBois. 2015 Browse removal, plant condition, and moose twinning rates before and after short-term changes in moose densities. Alces 51: 1-21

Parmentier, F.J., W. Zhang, Y. Mi, X. Zhu, J. van Huissteden, D.J. Hayes, Q. Zhuang, T.R. Christensen, A.D. McGuire. 2015 Rising methane emissions from northern wetlands associated with sea ice decline. Geophysical Research Letters 42. pp. 7214-7222. doi: 10.1002/2015GL065013

Rawlins, M., A.D. McGuire, J.S. Kimball, P. Dass, D.M. Lawrence, E. Burke, X. Chen, C. Delire, C.D. Koven, A. MacDougall, S. Peng, A. Rinke, L. Saito, W. Zhang, R. Alkama, T.J. Bohn, P. Ciais, B. Decharme, I. Gouttevin, T. Hajima, D. Ji, G. Krinner, D.P. Lettenmaier, P. Miller, J.C. Moore, B. Smith, T. Smith. 2015 Assessment of model estimates of land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across northern Eurasia. Biogeosciences 12. pp. 4385-4405. doi: 10.5194/bg-12-1-2015

Rinehart, A.J., J. Jones, T. Harms. 2015. Hydrologic and biogeochemical influences on carbon processing in the riparian zone of a subarctic stream. Freshwater Science 34(1). pp. 222-232. doi: 10.1086/679595

Ruegg, J., W.K. Dodds, M.D. Daniels, K.R. Sheehan, C.L. Baker, W.B. Bowden, K.J. Farrell, M.B. Flinn, T. Harms, J. Jones, L.E. Koenig, J.S. Kominoski, W.H. McDowell, S.P. Parker, A.D. Rosemond, M.T. Trentman, M. Whiles, W.M. Wollheim. 2015 Baseflow physical characteristics differ at multiple spatial scales in stream networks across diverse biomes. Landscape Ecology 31(1). pp. 119-136. doi: 10.1007/s10980-015-0289-y

Schneider, W.S., K. Brewster, K. Kielland. 2015 Team Building on Dangerous Ice: A Study in Collaborative Learning. Arctic 68(3). pp. 399-404.

Schuur, E.A.G., A.D. McGuire, C. Schadel, G. Grosse, J.W. Harden, D.J. Hayes, G. Hugelius, C.D. Koven, P. Kuhry, D.M. Lawrence, S.M.N. Natali, D. Olefeldt, V.E. Romanovsky, K. Schaefer, M.R. Turetsky, C.C. Treat, J.E. Vonk. 2015 Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback. Nature 520. pp. 171-179. doi: 10.1038/nature14338

Shanley, C., S. Pyare, M.I. Goldstein, P.B. Alaback, D.M. Albert, C. Beier, T. Brinkman, R.T. Edwards, E. Hood, A. MacKinnon, M.V. McPhee, T. Patterson, L.H. Suring, D.A. Tallmon, M.S. Wipfli. 2015 Climate change implications in the northern coastal temperate rainforest of North America. Climate Change 130(2). pp. 155-170. doi: 10.1007/s10584-015-1355-9

Spellman, K.V.. 2015 Educating for resilience in the North: building a toolbox for teachers. Ecology and Society 20(1). 11 p. doi: 10.5751/ES-07243-200146

Spellman, K.V., L.C. Schneller, C.P.H. Mulder, M.L. Carlson. 2015 Effects of non-native Melilotus albus on pollination and reproduction in two boreal shrubs. Oecologia 179(2). pp. 495-507. doi: 10.1007/s00442-015-3364-9

Treat, C.C., S.M.N. Natali, J. Ernakovich, C.M. Iversen, M. Lupascu, A.D. McGuire, R.J. Norby, T.R. Chowdhury, J.A. Richter_Menge, H. Santruckova, C. Schadel, E.A.G. Schuur, V.L. Sloan, M.R. Turetsky, M.P. Waldrop. 2015 A pan-Arctic synthesis of CH4 and CO2 production from anoxic soil incubations. Global Change Biology 21. pp. 2787-2803. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12875

Turetsky, M. R., B. Benscoter, S. Page, G. Rein, G. R. van der Werf, and A. Watts. 2015 Global vulnerability of peatlands to fire and carbon loss. Nature Geoscience 8: 11-14. DOI: 10.1038/NGEO2325.

Verbyla, D.L.. 2015 Remote sensing of interannual boreal forest NDVI in relation to climatic conditions in interior Alaska. Environmental Research Letters 10. 28 p. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/10/12/125016

Walker, X., M.C. Mack, J.F. Johnstone. 2015 Stable carbon isotope analysis reveals widespread drought stress in boreal black spruce forests. Global Change Biology 21. pp. 3102-3113. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12893

Worker, S.B.W., K. Kielland, P.S. Barboza. 2015 Effects of geophagy on food intake, body mass, and nutrient dynamics of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). Canadian Journal of Zoology 93(4). pp. 323-329. doi: 10.1139/cjz-2014-0237

Xu, C., M. Holmgren, E.H. Van Nes, M. Hirota, F.S. Chapin, III, M. Scheffer. 2015 A changing number of alternative states in the boreal biome: Reproducibility risks of replacing remote sensing products. PLOS ONE 10(11). 5 p. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143014

Zhuang, Q., X. Zhu, Y. He, C. Prigent, J.M. Melillo, A.D. McGuire, R.G. Prinn, D.W. Kicklighter. 2015 Influence of changes in wetland inundation extent on net fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane in northern high latitudes from 1993 to 2004. Environmental Research Letters 10(9). 13 p. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/10/9/095009


Books:


Book Chapters:

Chapin, F.S., III, S. Pickett, M.E. Power, S.L. Collins, J.S. Baron, D.W. Inouye, M.G. Turner. 2015. Earth stewardship: An initiative by the Ecological Society of America to foster engagement to sustain Planet Earth. Earth Stewardship: Linking Ecology and Ethics in Theory and Practice. R Rozzi, FS Chapin, III, JB Callicott, STA Pickett, ME Power and JJ Armesto (editor). pp. 173-194. Dordrecht: Springer International Publishing. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-12133-8_12


Conference Proceedings:


Report:

Genet, H., Y. He, A.D. McGuire, Q. Zhuang, Y. Zhang, F. Biles, D.V. D'Amore, X. Zhou, K. Johnson. 2016. Introduction. Chapter 6 in Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper. Z. Zhu and A.D. McGuire (editor).

He, Y., H. Genet, A.D. McGuire, Q. Zhuang, B.K. Wylie, Y. Zhang. 2016. Wetland carbon dynamics in Alaska from 1950 to 2099 in Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper. Z. Zhu and A.D. McGuire (editor).

McGuire, A.D., H. Genet, Y. He, S. Stackpoole, D.V. D'Amore, T.S. Rupp, B.K. Wylie, X. Zhou, Z. Zhu. 2016. Alaska Carbon Balance in Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper. Z. Zhu and A.D. McGuire (editor).

McGuire, A.D., T.S. Rupp, T.K. Kurkowski, S. Stackpoole. 2016. Introduction in Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper. Z. Zhu and A.D. McGuire (editor).

Zhou, X., S.A. Schroder, A.D. McGuire, Z. Zhu. 2016. Forest inventory-based analysis and projections of forest carbon stocks and changes in Alaska coastal forests in Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper. Z. Zhu and A.D. McGuire (editor).

Zhu, Z., A.D. McGuire. 2016. U.S. Geological Survey. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in ecosystems of Alaska. Z. Zhu and A.D. McGuire (editor).

Noetzli, J.., H.H. Christiansen, V.E. Romanovsky, N. Shiklomanov, S.L. Smith, G. Vieira, L.. Zhao. 2015. Global Climate Cryosphere, Permafrost thermal state. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. State of the Climate in 2014. J. Blunden and D.S. Arndt (editor). 7. pp. S17-S18.

Romanovsky, V.E., S.L. Smith, H.H. Christiansen, N. Shiklomanov, D.A. Streletskiy, D. Drozdov, G. Malkova, N. Oberman, A. Kholodov, S. Marchenko. 2015. The Arctic Terrestrial Permafrost. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. State of the Climate in 2014. J. Blunden and D.S. Arndt (editor). 7. pp. S139-S141.


Thesis and Dissertations:

Allaby, A.. 2015. The 30-Year Outcome of Assisted Regeneration Treatments in a Burned and Salvaged Interior Alaska Boreal Forest. M.S. Thesis. University of Alaska Fairbanks; Fairbanks. 126 p.

Burgess, R.A.B.. 2015. Synergistic degradation of lignocellulose by fungi and bacteria in boreal forest soil. M.S. Thesis. University of Alaska Fairbanks; Fairbanks. 41 p.


Bonanza Creek Research News and Highlights ARCHIVE

Nov 16, 2015 Opportunity
Contact: Annie Duffy
Title: "Arctic Perspectives," a new March 2016 art/sci collaborative exhibit opportunity is calling for submissions.

Nov 16, 2015
Get more information here.
    Anyone with interest in Arctic science is welcome to apply - it's not limited to just Alaskan artists or scientists. This a joint venture between the UAF Art Department and several UAF science groups intended to bring the arts into the upcoming Arctic Science Summit Week. (March 2016) It’s a great opportunity for both local artists and scientists. The application due date is 11/30/15. (Simple app - just a statement, CV, and 4 images.) Can you please share it widely with your various networks? Any questions about arts/humanities submissions, possible collaboration ideas, etc., can be sent to Annie Duffy (aduffy@alaska.edu). Science-related questions can be sent to Olivia Lee (oalee@alaska.edu). The prospectus can be found here: Prospectus

Oct 23, 2015 Lecture
Presenter: Knut Kielland
Title: IAB Life Science Hour Seminar Series - Bidirectional demographic effects of plant-herbivore-predator interactions (with an addendum to the Bible)

Oct 23, 2015 ; 3:00PM ; Murie Life Science Bldg, Murie Auditorium
Get more information here.
    The population dynamics of plants and animals are influenced to a large extent by trophic interactions. The strength of these interactions may not only cascade across trophic levels by way of changing population abundance, but also change population structure, the nature of which control patterns of survival, reproduction, and resilience. I will present examples from the boreal forest of a range of these phenomena and discuss a handful of the most pertinent and delightful ideas that have been put forth to explain the mechanisms and demographic consequences of these interactions. Yep, that’s what this talk will be about.

Oct 1, 2015 News
Presenter: Jamie Hollingsworth
Title: Long-term Research in Interior Alaska Tracks Consequences of our Changing Climate

Oct 1, 2015
Get more information here.
    Jamie Hollingsworth writes an article in the recent issue of The Western Forester (http://www.forestry.org/media/docs/westernforester/2015/WFSeptOct2015-2.pdf).

Sep 2, 2015 News
Title: Alix Conway wins a prize for her poster at the 2015 LTER All Scientists Meeting!

Sep 2, 2015 ; Estes Park, CO
Get more information here.
    "A three-pronged approach to understanding how fire and mammalian herbivory interact to influence post-fire forest growth and composition in interior Alaska"

    Presenter/Primary Author: Alexandra Conway
    Co-Authors: Jill Johnstone



Bonanza Creek Primary Research Sites

goldarrow Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest (BCEF), located approximately 20 km south of Fairbanks at 64.8 N, 148.0 W.

goldarrow Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW), located at 65.16 N, 147.5 W, approximately 45 km north of Fairbanks.


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The Bonanza Creek LTER, including this website, is supported by the National Science Foundation through awards DEB-1026415, DEB-0620579, DEB-0423442, DEB-0080609, DEB-9810217, DEB-9211769, DEB-8702629 and by the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station through agreement number RJVA-PNW-01-JV-11261952-231. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in the material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the supporting agencies or the program as a whole.

© Bonanza Creek LTER, 2011.
Last modified 14-Feb-16
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